In my last post, I discussed how metaphors of time are used to describe economics, highlighting a few phrases from a recent Time magazine article (“Surprise: The Economy Isn’t as Bad as You Think: Seven Signs America has Turned the Corner” by Roger Altman, Time, July 28, 2014, pp. 38-42). Today I would like to share a few metaphors based on experiences of physical movement and journeys from the same article.
We have all passively experienced the flow of water in a river or the passing of clouds in the sky. We have also experienced the more active motion of driving in a car, or riding in a boat or train. These experiences of movement and being on a journey help us create metaphors to describe other more abstract experiences and we find a number of these metaphors used to describe economics. We have metaphors to describe when there is no movement at all, backwards movements, or forward journeys. All of the following examples are from the Time magazine article; the italics are mine used to highlight the metaphors in question.
When there is no flow of water in a river, we say that the water is stagnant. This term carries a negative connotation since stagnant water is often polluted or filled with natural debris. In fact, the word stagnant originally referred to standing water in a pond or swamp. When there is no movement towards a goal in business, economics or politics, we may say that it is stagnant.
Example: “Our outlook shines compared with that of the rest of the industrialized world, as Europe and Japan are stagnant” (p. 40).
Example: Speaking of educational outcomes, “For 25 years, those outcomes were stagnant” (p. 42).
Another way of indicating a lack of movement is to say something is stable. This carries a meaning of being balanced or not moving backwards or forwards.
Example: “…the role of manufacturing in our GDP is stable…” (p. 41).
Trains run on railroad tracks. They must be on the correct tracks to go in the right direction. If they are on the wrong tracks they will go in the wrong direction, either making progress towards a different location, or going completely in the opposite direction. In either case, a literal train or a metaphorical process on the wrong track will not be making the expected progress.
Example: “In the latest NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll, 63% of respondents said the U.S. is on the wrong track” (p. 40).
We have many terms in English based on the back as a body part, indicating that something is literally or metaphorically behind us. One such term is setback, an interesting compound word created by combining the motion of putting or setting something in a particular location along with the physical location of something. Metaphorically, a setback is an event that blocks the progress of a group of people towards a particular goal. In this case, the opposite of a setback is a recovery, word originally meant to indicate a return to good health. In the Time magazine article there are several insets highlighting setbacks and recoveries of the economy.
Example: “13% – Setback: Percentage of households that suffered ‘substantial financial stress’ during the recession. 26% – Recovery: Increase in the average home price in 20 key metro areas since April 2012” (p. 40).
We normally travel forward in a vehicle, but sometimes we must drive in reverse to put the vehicle in a particular position. Metaphorically, reversing oneself indicates that the person is going in the opposite direction that one was originally heading. Normally there is a negative connotation to this term, as if one is breaking a promise or not succeeding in reaching a goal. However, in other cases there may be a positive connotation when a person is describing something going in a positive direction after having been going in a negative direction. This situation occurs in the Time magazine article when the author describes negative economic trends stop and begin to improve.
Example: After describing poor high school graduation rates in the U.S., the author writes “But beginning in 2006, the decline began to reverse” (p. 42).
Example: After noting that labor costs are rising in China, the author writes “That explains why certain U.S. producers are reversing themselves and committing to manufacturing goods at home” (p. 41).
Another way to describe a negative trend becoming positive is to say that it is a turnaround, as if a vehicle is turning and driving in the opposite direction.
Example: “…criminologists still differ on what has caused the nationwide turnaround in crime rates…” (p. 42).
A final example of backwards movement is the term comeback. Once again this term is a compound word combining an action with an adverb. In popular terms, this term is used to describe an athlete or celebrity whose career had been failing but found success again later. In economics, the term comeback may describe a reversal of a negative trend.
Example: “Despite the pessimistic mood, America is experiencing a profound comeback” (p. 40).
One way to describe a vehicle changing course and going the right direction is to say that one turns the corner. Metaphorically to turn the corner indicates that progress toward a goal that was once stalled is not proceeding in the right direction.
Example: In the title of the article, Roger Altman aims to describe “Seven signs that America has turned the corner” (pp. 38-39).
As mentioned earlier, trains must travel on tracks. When a train is derailed or off the tracks, it cannot continue moving forward. When the train is repaired, we say that it is back on track.
Example: “The idea that America, whose oil production has been declining for the past 40 years, is now on track to become the world’s biggest producer by 2015 is still hard to grasp” (p. 41).
engine of our economy
Forward movement is also characterized by a machine or an engine with power and force. We may say that manufacturing, for instance, is the engine of our economy as if it is a vehicle driving down the road. (Note that in the following example, the economy is also described as being “healthy” as if it is a person recovering from an illness.)
Example: “…the overall outlook for consumer spending, the engine of our economy, is healthy again” (p. 40).
Engines can be given additional horsepower with a turbocharger, a device that forces more air and fuel into the combustion chamber. Metaphorically, a process can be turbocharged if it is given extra energy through additional money or resources applied to it.
Example: Altman notes that the economy is recovering “And it’s all being turbocharged by an energy boom nobody saw coming” (p. 40).
Economic progress can also be described in terms of a rocket being launched. A rocket or missile follows a specific trajectory or arc in the sky after being fired. A powerful rocket can have a very high and long trajectory. Metaphorically, the trajectory of a process is its planned execution or development.
Example: “Surveys find entrenched pessimism over the country’s economic outlook and overall trajectory” (p. 40).
In a less technological metaphor, we can also liken economic progress to the journey on a horse. Horses have several gaits including slow trots and fast gallops. Any movement described as galloping indicates a past pace towards a goal. In this example, the author ironically describes automotive technology as making galloping advances.
Example: “…galloping advances in engine technology and vehicle weight are enabling automakers to improve their mileage more quickly than anyone forecast” (p. 41).
lead the way
Journeys often need leaders to guide the travelers. We sometimes speak of a road as a way, as in our word highway. Saying that a person leads the way indicates that the person is guiding the journey or the process towards a goal.
Example: In describing the reduction of coal-fired plants, the author states “To have any credibility in leading global negotiations on these issues, we need to lead the way” (p. 41).
In a final example, the author ends the article with a mixture of several powerful metaphors. In addition to use the word outlook (as described in the previous post), and a mention of barriers, physical or metaphorical impediments to our journeys, he also describes the economic recovery process as walking on a thin financial line as if one may fall off a thin walkway while crossing a dangerous part of the journey.
Example: “With our economy’s near- and medium-term economic outlook strong, now is the time to remove the barriers that are keeping hardworking Americans walking a far too thin financial line” (p. 42).
Next time: A book review: Metaphors in International Relations Theory by Michael P. Marks