Category Archives: Politics

Happy Holidays! Metaphors of Eating!

Happy Holidays!

First of all I would like to thank all of my loyal readers and visitors to this blog. This week marks my 3rd anniversary. I am happy to report that I have now had over 200,000 views to date, and I am averaging about 500 views per day during the academic year, some weeks 700 – 800 views per day. I have more than doubled my viewership each of the three years and hope the blog keeps growing. My viewers are high school and college students from all over the world. I am very proud to be helping so many students understand metaphors. Please let me know if you have any questions about the blog or special requests on certain metaphors that you are studying.

Today, as we go into the holidays and begin overeating during Christmas and New Year’s Eve parties, I thought I would share a few metaphors of eating. I have discussed food in several prior posts including spotlights on meat and potatoes,  desserts and drinks, and types of cooking. Today I would like to share metaphors of the simple process of eating.

Eating 

hungry for something

When we have not eaten in several hours we will become hungry for food. In popular terms, one can also be hungry for other things he or she wants in life.

Example: Many Americans are hungry for a new kind of government in which members of Congress work hard to help working class people.

blog - food - Family_eating_mealconsume/consumer

Consume is another word for eat. While we commonly consume food, metaphorically people and machines consume other things such as natural resources and products. A consumer is anyone who buys products in American stores and marketplaces.

Example: American presidents must consider the fact that Americans consume incredible amounts of oil in their cars and buildings.

Example: American consumers greatly influence the state of the economy with their every day purchases.

chew the fat

A piece of meat with fat requires a longer time to chew. The phrase to chew the fat means to talk about something for a long time, usually with the sense that nothing important is said.

Example: During elections, sometimes candidates will go on popular TV talk shows to chew the fat with celebrities and get more exposure to voters.

eating savings

As with the idea of consuming, eating can be used metaphorically to use up a certain resource. For example, high costs of food and gasoline can eat into people’s savings accounts.

Example: Americans spend less money on vacations when everyday expenses eat into their savings and they cannot afford to travel.

eating higher costs

Businesses may also need to pay for rising expenses out of their own budget. This is sometimes referred to as eating higher costs.

Example: Shipping companies may decide to raise their prices instead of eating the higher costs of gasoline for their cars and trucks.

feast on

If people have a great deal of food at a meal, they may feast on all the food. Metaphorically, journalists can feast on scandals and other big news items generated by politicians.

Example: When John McCain surprised everyone by nominating Sarah Palin as his running mate for the 2008 presidential election, the TV news shows feasted on the big news and spent days talking about Governor Palin’s background.

blog - food - Digestive-systemdigest

When we eat food, our bodies digest it with our internal organs. Metaphorically, we can also digest or understand information that we learn from books and TV.

Example: Many Americans do not vote in major elections because they cannot digest all the complex information about the candidates and the issues.

spoon feed

Babies cannot eat food on their own so their parents must feed them. This is sometimes called spoon-feeding babies. In common terms, people can also be spoon-fed information if they do not understand something.

Example: Well-educated voters do not like to be spoon-fed information on important issues; they want to learn the whole story.blog - food - spoon feed

piecemeal

The term piecemeal is an Old English expression meaning the fixed time to eat a meal. However, the term now indicates doing something in small measured steps instead of in one large effort.

Example: President George Bush added troops in Iraq piecemeal instead of sending them there all at once.

piece of the pie

When a large group of people eat a pie for dessert, they must cut the pie into pieces to make sure everyone gets their share. Metaphorically, the pieces of the pie can represent the opportunities available to someone in a social or financial situation.

Example: Every American works hard to get their piece of the pie: a nice car, a nice house and a good family.

blog - food - slice of piesmall slice

Similarly, one part of something can be called a small slice as if it is a pie or a pizza.

Example: Local grocery stores may only be a small slice of the food market, but their lower prices can be very helpful to people on a budget.

 

blog - food - Assorted_forksfork over

Forks are common utensils for eating and serving food. A host at a party may serve a piece of meat by spearing it with a fork and passing it to a person. One might say the person is forking over the food to the person. In metaphorical terms, one can fork over something that he or she is obligated to give to another person, such as a payment for goods or services. In politics, politicians or taxpayers may have to fork over money to pay a certain obligation.

Example: During the 2008 bailout of the failing banks on Wall Street, American taxpayers had to fork over billions of dollars to keep the banks from closing.

fed up with something

When one has had a big meal, we can say that one is well fed. In slang terms, one can be fed up with some problem, meaning the person is no longer tolerant of something.

Example: Many taxpayers say they are fed up with having to pay higher taxes to pay for government’s mistakes.

IMG_1320pick up the tab

When one goes to a restaurant or bar, the amount one has to pay for the food and drink at the end of the evening is called the tab. In popular terms, picking up the tab means to pay the entire bill for a group of people. In politics, people and groups can pick up the tab to pay for government programs or events.

Example: During an election campaign, the political party may pick up the tab for a candidate’s travel expenses.

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It is always amazing to me that we create political metaphors simply based on everyday activities. It is perhaps no surprise that we have metaphors based on eating – one of the favorite activities of Americans. I hope you have enjoyed these posts this past year and have learned something along the way. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year! See you in 2016!

 

 

 

Signature Issues – Synecdoche Part 2

Hello! Sorry for the delay with today’s post. This has been crunch time for my teaching schedule at the end of the quarter. I have been swamped with testing, grades and endless paperwork. I am trying to catch up with my blog posts.

Today I would like to provide the second part of my analysis of synecdoche. The last time I discussed examples from the human body, land, furniture and buildings. This time I explain examples from writing, money, tool, weapons and machines.

Writing

the fine print

In many legal documents, the details of the agreement are very long and complex so they are often printed in small letters. This is usually referred to as the fine print. Thus the small print represents the details of a process or agreement. There is also usually a negative sense to the phrase since people are sometimes fooled by not reading the fine print in a document before they sign it.

Example: Barack Obama’s Affordable Care Act was a document of 2700 pages. Members of Congress had to read a lot of fine print before they could vote on it to be passed into law.

blog - business - JohnHancocksignature issues

A signature is a handwritten name. It represents the person’s identity and approval of the document that is signed.   For politicians, the issues that they are most passionate about are sometimes called their signature issues. Their signature represents their interest in those issues.

 

Example: For many Republicans, the signature issues are taxes and government spending.

blog - synecdoche - penthe pen is mightier than the sword

One of the oldest examples of synecdoche in English dates to a British play written in 1839. In this case the pen refers to the power of written documents to cause or end wars, while the sword refers to the power of military weapons to fight a war. Thus, saying that the pen is mightier than the sword indicates that diplomacy is more powerful than military solutions in times of war.

Example: For most American presidents, trouble in the Middle East is a difficult situation to handle. Some prefer military options while others say that the pen is mightier than the sword.

 

Money

hit the pocketbook

A pocketbook is a type of wallet for holding money. When politicians talk about a bad economy affecting the finances of average Americans, they may say that it will hit the pocketbook, meaning their wallet will have less money than usual. In this case, the container represents the important contents inside the container.

Example: The economic crisis of 2008 hit the pocketbook of millions of Americans.

Model of an ancient Roman coin purse
Model of an ancient Roman coin purse

purse strings

Purses for holding money used to be simple leather bags tied with a string. In an old phrase from the Middle Ages, holding the purse strings meant to control the money in the household. As an example of synecdoche, the purse strings represent the money contained in the purse.

Example:  Congress likes to hold the purse strings for funding entitlement programs such as Social Security.

 

Tools and Weapons

blog - synecdoche - forkfield to fork

We use forks to eat our food. In these days of trying to reduce transportation and energy costs of moving food from farms to our groceries stores, politicians have created the phrase of reducing the costs of field to fork. The field represents the farms; the fork represents our eating of the food in our homes.

Example:  Whenever gas prices go up, some politicians support the development of local farmers’ markets to reduce the costs of field to fork.

blog - saber 2rattle sabers

A saber is a type of sword. When some members of Congress begin speaking of going to war against other countries, we may say that they are beginning to rattle their sabers. The sabers represent war or the willingness to go to war.

Example:  After the War in Iraq ended in 2010, some conservative politicians began to rattle their sabers against Iran.

 

Machines

blog - synecdoche - voting_booth voters pull the lever

In some cases, when people go to vote in their communities, they must pull a lever on a small machine that records their votes. In a common phrase, we refer to the process of voting as pulling the lever. The lever represents the entire voting process.

Example: In a presidential campaign, each political party tries to persuade voters to pull the lever for their candidates.

blog - synecdoche - radio dialacross the dial

Before the digital age, radios had a dial that showed the frequencies of each radio station. To go across the dial meant to listen to a wide range of music and news stations. In a modern figurative phrase, to go across the dial means to survey many types of political views on a certain topic. The dial thus represents differing political opinions.

Example:  In the 2008 presidential election, people from all across the dial voted for Barack Obama.

blog - synecdoche - wirewired campaign

Wires have long been used in the construction of radio, television and computer equipment. To say that an office is wired, for example, means that it has the latest technology, especially the best Internet connections and website access. If a campaign is wired, this means that the campaign staff are connecting to voters through websites and social media outlets.

Example: In 2008, some pundits believed that Barack Obama’s wired 2008 campaign helped him win the election.

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I think most American English speakers would not even realize that these examples I have described in the last two posts are types of figurative language since they are so commonly used. Once again, I believe these uses of synecdoche illustrate how easily our minds can understand non-literal language and how common synecdoche is in the English language. I often wonder how speakers of English as a second language know what the heck we are talking about most of the time. As always, questions and comments are welcome!

Next time: A Holiday Smorgasbord of Metaphors!

 

Boots on the Ground – Synecdoche, Part 1

 

One of the most common uses of figurative language in American politics these days is the phrase boots on the ground. I have discussed this once before in an earlier post. Technically this type of figurative language is not a metaphor, rather is it something known as synecdoche (sih-NECK-duh-key) but it is so common I feel I must explain it further.   Synecdoche has many complex patterns of usage, but for our purposes here, we can say that it occurs when a part of something represents a whole. For example, in the sailing phrase all hands on deck, the hands represent the sailors who will be doing the work.

In the most recent Democratic debate, Martin O’Malley read a note from an anguished mother of a service member and objected to the usage of the phrase boots on the ground.

“I was in Burlington, Iowa. And a mom of a service member of ours who served two duties in Iraq said, Governor O’ Malley, please, when you’re with your other candidates and colleagues on stage, please don’t use the term ‘boots on the ground’. Let’s don’t use the term ‘boots on the ground’.

My son is not a pair of boots on the ground. These are American soldiers and we fail them when we fail to take into account what happens the day after a dictator falls and when we fail to act with a whole of government approach with sustainable development, diplomacy, and our economic power in alignment with our principles.”

This concerned mother touches on a controversial aspect of figurative language, i.e., whether or not English speakers use these types of language to deliberately obfuscate the true meaning of the phrase. For example, we have uses of euphemisms in English which are created solely to describe something unpleasant in a more pleasing way, such as with passing away to mean “dying,” or enhanced interrogation techniques to mean “torture.” We can also find certain types of metaphors that have a negative implication about certain political topics, such as a flood of immigrants or a jittery stock market.  I have discussed these examples in two earlier posts as well.

However, I am not sure if common examples of synecdoche are created to hide the real meaning of a phrase.   Here are a few examples of synecdoche derived from concepts of the human body, land, furniture and buildings. Please let me know what you think!  Next week I will share some examples from other interesting categories.

 

Body

blog - synecdoche - Mount_Rushmoreheads of state

In a common phrase, the leaders of state governments are referred to as heads of state. In this case, the part of the body, the head, represents the whole person.

Example: Every year the heads of state from the largest nations meet at economic summits.

 

joint chiefs of staff

Many departments in government are managed by a head person, sometimes referred to as a chief. In what is now considered a dead metaphor, the word chief is derived from a French word meaning head, similar to the word chef meaning the person in charge of the cooking. Thus, the chiefs are the heads of the department. In U.S. government, the heads of the different branches of the military are collectively called the joint chiefs of staff.

Example: After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the joint chiefs of staff advised President Bush on how to deal with the terrorists.

standing on shoulders

In cases of great success, some people say that they could succeed only because they stood on the shoulders to the people who came before them. Figuratively, the shoulders represent the people and their efforts that they are standing on.

Example: When Barack Obama became the first African-American president, he was standing on the shoulders of Martin Luther King, Jr., Medgar Evers and the Reverend Jesse Jackson among others.

blog - synecdoche - Army-bootsboots on the ground/boot camp

In a common expression of the quantity of military troops, we say that we have boots on the ground. The boots refer to the soldiers wearing the boots. Similarly, the training grounds for new soldiers is sometimes called boot camp for the same reason.

Example: In 2007, President Bush requested more boots on the ground to help win the War in Iraq. This troop surge eventually did lead to the end of the war.

 

 

Land and Country

American soil

As mentioned in the chapter on Nature, soil can be representative of the country that lives on that soil.

Example: The 9/11 terrorist attacks were the first attacks on American soil since World War II.

blog - synecdoche - USA_Flagthe flag

The American flag is symbolic of the country of the United States. When Americans salute the flag, they are respecting the country that it represents.

Example: Each American president must respect the flag during military or diplomatic ceremonies.

 

 

 

Furniture and Buildings

seat of government

The capital city or group of buildings that contain government offices is known collectively as the seat of government. In this case, the government is represented by the places where the government officials literally sit to do their work.

Example: The seat of government for the United States is in Washington D.C.

blog - synecdoche - seat of governmentseat/unseat

A person elected to the Senate or House of Representatives is said to have earned a seat in Congress. For the same reason described above, the literal seat in the building represents the person and the work he or she does for the government. When a person loses an election, we may say that he or she has been unseated.

Example: In 2014, many Democratic members of the House of Representatives were unseated in the November election.

sit on the committee

Members of Congress who are hardworking and well-liked may be asked to work on special committees trying to pass bills for defense, employment, budget, etc. When they do such work, we often say that they sit on the committee, as if the seat represents the work that the person is doing.

Example: Newly elected members of Congress hope that they can sit on important committees to best serve their districts and their country.

pass the bar

Many politicians began their careers as lawyers. To become a lawyer, a person must pass a series of difficult tests referred to as passing the bar. Originally, the bar referred to a railing separating a judge from the lawyers in a courtroom in the 16th century. In a case of synecdoche, the bar came to represent the entire process of beginning a lawyer.

Example: Mitt Romney and Barack Obama were both trained as lawyers. Romney passed the bar in Michigan while Obama passed the bar in Illinois.

board of directors

The word board used to mean a long table. Our modern phrase of a board of directors originated from the practice of people sitting together around a table at a meeting.

Example: Many politicians who work with local business leaders must sometimes speak with the board of directors of those companies.

blog - synecdoche - Garden_benchthe bench

In the Middle Ages, judges sat on a wooden bench. The bench itself has come to represent an entire court or legal system. Supreme Court Justices are said to read their sit on or read their verdicts from the bench.

Example: In 2010, Barack Obama nominated Elena Kagan to the bench of the Supreme Court.

reach across the aisle

Democrats and Republicans usually sit in different sections of the seating area in Congress separated by an aisle. When they work together on passing legislation, we may say that they are reaching across the aisle. Thus the aisle of the floor represents the separation between Democrats and Republicans.

Example: In the first few years of Barack Obama’s presidency, some Republicans accused him of not reaching across the aisle. Some Democrats, however, complained that it was the Republicans who were blocking bipartisan cooperation.

lobbyist

A lobby is the main entryway in a large building. In the early days of American government, people wishing to gain favor from politicians waited in the lobbies of governmental buildings to visit the legislators. Later the term lobbyist referred to these people hoping from special favors from the government.

Example: Health care advocates claim that tobacco company lobbyists kept the dangers of smoking from public view for many decades.

Next time: More examples of synecdoche.

1st Democratic Debate, Part 2

Today I continue Part 2 of the analysis of metaphors from the first Democratic debate. Last time I described some of the more unusual conceptual metaphors, this time I will explain a few of the more common metaphors from nature, body position, physical forces and journeys.

As I did last time, the examples are taken directly from the transcript of the debate. The quotations are cited according to the candidates: Hillary Clinton (HC), Bernie Sanders (BS), Martin O’Malley (MO), Jim Webb (JW), or Lincoln Chafee (LC). Some quotations are also from the CNN commentators Anderson Cooper (AC) or Juan Carlos Lopez (JCL). Italics are mine.

Nature

Lincoln Chafee provided the most obvious example of the evening, describing himself as a block of granite, comparing his allegiance to his political party to one of the hardest known rocks on earth. Other metaphors include examples from farming, e.g., sowing the seeds of unrest, or being rooted in values.   The idea of strawman gun purchasers, those who buy firearms for someone who is not legally allowed to do so, is derived from the idea of a scarecrow that is not a real person. The power of nature is also described metaphorically in the phrases of cascading threats and windfall profits, while the inability to make progress in a government programs is compared to a marsh or quagmire, in which one can be bogged down. The inability to control government programs is compared to the power of animals as something that is running amok or a horse that must be reined in.

blog - nature - graniteblock of granite

Example: “Anderson, you’re looking at a block of granite when it comes to the issues. Whether it’s…” (LC)

COOPER: “It seems like pretty soft granite. I mean, you’ve been a Republican, you’ve been an independent.” (AC)

sowing the seeds of unrest

Example: “The current top prosecutor in Baltimore, also a Democrat, blames your zero tolerance policies for sowing the seeds of unrest.” (HC speaking to MO)

rooted in values

Example: “So I have a long history of getting things done, rooted in the same values…” (HC)

A set of scarecrows in a field in Japan
A set of scarecrows in a field in Japan

straw man purchasers

Example: “And I think we’ve got to move aggressively at the federal level in dealing with the straw man purchasers.” (BS)

cascading threats

Example: “I believe that nuclear Iran remains the biggest threat, along with the threat of ISIL; climate change, of course, makes cascading threats even more (inaudible).” (MO)

windfall profits

Example: “And let me just go back a minute and say that on this TARP program, I introduced a piece of legislation calling for a windfall profits tax on the executives of any of these companies that got more than $5 billion, that it was time for them, once they got their compensation and their bonus, to split the rest of the money they made with the nurses and the truck drivers and the soldiers who bailed them out.” (JW)

Soldiers from 25th Brigade Support Battalion, 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, recover a tractor trailer from a mire pit during the Vehicle Recovery Course Sept. 28, 2011, at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan. The training is designed to challenge unit mechanics and prepare them for rainy season conditions in Afghanistan. (Courtesy of 125th Stryker Brigade Combat Team) - http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/6254338960/
Soldiers from 25th Brigade Support Battalion, 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, recover a tractor trailer from a mire pit during the Vehicle Recovery Course Sept. 28, 2011, at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan. The training is designed to challenge unit mechanics and prepare them for rainy season conditions in Afghanistan. (Courtesy of 125th Stryker Brigade Combat Team) – http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/6254338960/

quagmire

Example: “Well, let’s understand that when we talk about Syria, you’re talking about a quagmire in a quagmire.” (BS)

bogged down

Example: “But I think when Russians get killed in Syria and when he [Putin] gets bogged down, I think the Russian people are going to give him a message that maybe they should come home, maybe they should start working with the United States to rectify the situation now.” (BS)

 

 

 

rein in/run amok

Example: “We are the United States of America. And it’s our job to rein in the excesses of capitalism so that it doesn’t run amok and doesn’t cause the kind of inequities we’re seeing in our economic system.” (HC)

 

Body Position

            Metaphors based on the human body are very common in politics, especially those comparing actions to positions of the body.   These examples include standing up to bullying or the NRA, still standing instead of falling down in a fight, or standing still instead of running or making progress in an endeavor. We can also say that we won’t back down to a fight. In a different sense of body movement, one can be metaphorically paralyzed if there is no action taking place or have a backbone to do something brave be an essential part of a larger system. On a smaller scale, we can describe important information falling into the wrong hands, or all the wealth held by a handful of billionaires. 

blog - body - standingstand up to his bullying

Example: “There’s no doubt that when Putin came back in and said he was going to be President, that did change the relationship. We have to stand up to his bullying, and specifically in Syria, it is important — and I applaud the administration because they are engaged in talks right now with the Russians to make it clear that they’ve got to be part of the solution to try to end that bloody conflict.” (HC) 

stood up against the NRA

Example: “I think that we have to look at the fact that we lose 90 people a day from gun violence. This has gone on too long and it’s time the entire country stood up against the NRA.” (HC) 

back down

Example: “And we did it by leading with principle, not by pandering to the NRA and backing down to the NRA.” (MO) 

I am still standing

Example: “I am still standing. I am happy to be part of this debate.” (HC) 

standing but not running

Example: “That Great Recession, 9 million people lost their jobs, 5 million lost their homes, $13 trillion in wealth disappeared. And although we’ve made progress, we’re standing but not running the way America needs to.” (HC) 

paralyzed

Example: “We should not be paralyzed — we should not be paralyzed by the Republicans and their constant refrain, “big government this, big government that,” that except for what they want to impose on the American people.” (HC)

blog - body - backbone

 

backbone

Example: “So what we need to do is support small and medium-sized businesses, the backbone of our economy, but we have to make sure that every family in this country gets a fair shake…” (BS) 

handful of billionaires

Example: “What this campaign is about is whether we can mobilize our people to take back our government from a handful of billionaires and create the vibrant democracy we know we can and should have.” (BS)

wrong hands

Example: “I think it has to be continued threat from the spread of nuclear weapons, nuclear material that can fall into the wrong hands. I know the terrorists are constantly seeking it, and that’s why we have to stay vigilant, but also united around the world to prevent that.” (HC)

 

Physical Forces

We can also describe people’s behavior in terms of strong physical forces. Thus we have examples of outside forces tearing or ripping the country apart, while millions of jobs are wiped out and we have crushing debt and a broken criminal justice system. We can also have people turning out for voting, violence exploding and a middle class that is shrinking or collapsing. We can have extreme physical forces such as someone being hit by a train, or railroaded, or someone doing a delicate action such as threading a tough needle.  

IMG_0062tear our country apart

Example: “For there is a — deep injustice, an economic injustice that threatens to tear our country apart, and it will not solve itself. Injustice does not solve itself.” (MO)

rip it apart

Example: “We have to prevent the Republicans from ripping it [the Dodd-Frank bill] apart.” (HC)

wiped out millions of jobs

Example: “Secretary Clinton mentioned my support eight years ago. And Secretary, I was proud to support you eight years ago, but something happened in between, and that is, Anderson, a Wall Street crash that wiped out millions of jobs and millions of savings for families.” (MO)

crushing debt

Example: “Our economy isn’t money, it’s people. It’s all of our people, and so we must invest in our country, and the potential of our kids to make college a debt free option for all of our families, instead of settling our kids with a lifetime of crushing debt.”(MO)

broken criminal justice system

Example: “We need to combat institutional racism from top to bottom, and we need major, major reforms in a broken criminal justice system…” (BS) 

turnouts

Example: “We are bringing out huge turnouts, and creating excitement all over this country.” (BS)

exploded in violence

Example: “Governor O’Malley, the concern of voters about you is that you tout our record as Baltimore’s mayor. As we all know, we all saw it. That city exploded in riots and violence in April.” (AC)

middle class is shrinking

Example: “What I’m talking about is this, our middle class is shrinking. Our poor families are becoming poorer, and 70 percent of us are earning the same, or less than we were 12 years ago.” (MO)

The I-35 bridge collapse in Minneapolis in August 2007
The I-35 bridge collapse in Minneapolis in August 2007

middle class is collapsing

Example: “The middle class — Anderson, and let me say something about the media, as well. I go around the country, talk to a whole lot of people. Middle class in this country is collapsing.” (BS)

railroaded

Example: “But the reason why people remain angry about it is because people feel like a lot of our legislators got railroaded in a war fever and by polls.” (MO)

thread a tough needle

Example: “I think the president is trying very hard to thread a tough needle here, and that is to support those people who are against Assad, against ISIS, without getting us on the ground there…” (BS)

blog - phys forces - needle

Journey

Finally, we had several examples of journey metaphors in the debate that are common in political speeches. Metaphorical journeys are often compared to walking or taking steps. People making progress in an endeavor are compared to soldiers marching together so that a person not being a part of the group is considered out of step.   Others taking the lead in a situation are described as taking a step forward. The first step may require walking out of one’s house, so starting a new journey may be described as standing on the threshold. While beginning a journey may be described as taking the right route as in being a path to citizenship.

Movement forward is always desired while going backwards or having reversals is deemed counterproductive. Going backwards may also be compared to a car turning the state around. Controlling a situation is compared to driving a car while taking a back seat indicates not being in control or in the lead of a movement. We can also put forward specific plans, move forward, or move our country forward while making progress is compared to leading in a car race, being behind instead of ahead or getting ahead and staying ahead. 

out of step

Example: “Given that nearly half the Democratic Party is non-white, aren’t you out of step with where the Democratic Party is now?” (AC to JW) 

want to step forward

Example: “That distress of communities, where communities don’t want to step forward and say who killed a 3-year-old, it’s a direct result of these failed policies.” (AC) 

blog - journey - thresholdstand on the threshold

Example: “I truly believe that we are standing on the threshold of a new era of American progress.” (MO)

path toward citizenship

Example: “My view right now — and always has been — is that when you have 11 million undocumented people in this country, we need comprehensive immigration reform, we need a path toward citizenship, we need to take people out of the shadows.” (BS)

reversals

Example: “…right before this debate, Secretary Clinton’s campaign put out a lot of reversals on positions on Keystone and many other things. But one of them that we still have a great difference on, Madam Secretary, is that you are not for Glass-Steagall.” (AC) 

turn the state around

Example: “I know how to turn around a state because I did as governor of Rhode Island.” (LC)

blog - journey - back seatback seat

Example: “And I don’t take a back seat to anyone when it comes to progressive experience and progressive commitment.” (HC) 

put forward specific plans

Example: “I’ve traveled across our country over the last months listening and learning, and I’ve put forward specific plans about how we’re going to create more good-paying jobs: by investing in infrastructure and clean energy, by making it possible once again to invest in science and research, and taking the opportunity posed by climate change to grow our economy.” (HC)

go forward

Example: “And if you think — if you think that we can simply go forward and pass something tomorrow without bringing people together, you are sorely mistaken.” (BS)

move our country forward

Example: “What you heard instead on this stage tonight was an honest search for the answers that will move our country forward, to move us to a 100 percent clean electric energy grid by 2050, to take the actions that we have always taken as Americans so that we can actually attack injustice in our country, employ more of our people, rebuild our cities and towns, educate our children at higher and better levels, and include more of our people in the economic, social, and political life of our country.” (MO)

blog - journey - aheadbehind instead of ahead

Example: “But I know, if we don’t come in with a very tough and comprehensive approach, like the plan I’m recommending, we’re going to be behind instead of ahead…” (HC)

get ahead and stay ahead

Example: “My mission as president will be to raise incomes for hard-working middle-class families and to make sure that we get back to the basic bargain I was raised with: If you work hard and you do your part, you should be able to get ahead and stay ahead.” (HC)

 

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In sum, this Democratic debate provided some very rich examples of common political metaphors.  These examples illustrate once more how ubiquitous conceptual metaphors are in American politics.

Next time:  TBA

Metaphors Inside Containers

A few weeks ago I described a few metaphors derived from the outside of containers such as Scott Walker dropping out of the 2016 election. Today I offer the opposite set of metaphors – those derived from descriptions of inside containers. Please let me know if you have any comments or questions.

Inside the container

Inside St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, Czech Republic
Inside St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, Czech Republic

in

                  One of the most common metaphors is when we talk about abstract ideas being in containers. We have many expressions such as being in politics, in the news, in the middle of the problem, etc.

Example: Sarah Palin was thrown into the middle of American politics when John McCain picked her as his vice-president candidate. 

take it all in

                  When a person tries to learn something complicated, it is difficult to understand everything. In these cases, we say it is hard to take it all in, as if we are putting the information into a container.

Example: During presidential debates, some of the policy discussions get so complicated, it is hard for average Americans to take it all in. 

blog - containers - Ship_in_bottleinside

                  In politics, reporters try to understand the details of politicians’ offices, policies, programs, staff problems, etc. This is called getting the inside information.

Example: During a presidential election, reporters ask many questions of candidates so they can get inside the campaign and find out what is really going on.

insider

                  An insider is someone who lives or works inside a certain area or institution. A person can be a White House insider, or a Washington insider, for example. Politicians who live in Washington D.C. are sometime called beltway insider because of the ring of highways around that city.

Example: In the 2008 election, John McCain was considered to be a beltway insider since he had been a U.S. Senator for so many years.

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enter

                  Rooms and houses are common containers. We can enter or exit these spaces. The same is true for tunnels or highways.  Metaphorically, we can also enter or exit abstract ideas as if they were containers, such as entering the political process, or entering an election race.

Example: Controversial elections always inspire young people to enter politics to see if they can make a difference.

blog - containers - Milk-bottlebottle up

Bottles are also common containers. Liquids in bottles are sealed or bottled up. Metaphorically, information, opinions, or emotions can also be bottled up in people who are not able to express themselves.

Example: After the 2008 election, Sarah Palin complained that John McCain’s staff kept her bottled up during the campaign and would not let her express her opinions at political rallies and interviews. 

blog - container - lock uplock up

                  Some containers, such as rooms with doors, cabinets, or safes can be locked with a key to prevent anyone from entering. In metaphorical terms, anything that is certain may be called locked up. In politics, a candidate may have a certain election locked up if he or she is sure to win.

Example: Late on the night of the 2012 presidential election when the votes were counted, it was clear that Barack Obama had the election all locked up.

fill

                  Containers can be filled with all sorts of liquid or solid materials. Abstract ideas such as time or job positions can also be filled. 

Example: When George W. Bush was elected in the year 2000, he filled his cabinet with Republicans who had worked with his father George H.W. Bush, Ronald Reagan, Gerald Ford or Richard Nixon.

 

Quantities inside Containers

                  Containers can be full or empty. Most commonly, metaphorical containers are described negatively as being empty, meaning there is a disappointment in the quality or quantity of something.

empty promise

                  When one makes a promise, one intends to complete some action. However, if the promise is not kept, we can say that it was an empty promise.

Example: Voters do not like candidates who make empty promises. If one says he or she will lower taxes, the taxes must indeed be lowered while that person is in office.

blog - containers - bowlempty vessel

                  A vessel is an old word meaning a large cup, bowl, vase or pot usually designed for holding liquids. A vessel full of water or milk is very valuable. An empty vessel has no value. In politics, similar to an empty suit, a person who does not seem to have good qualifications or who does not keep his or her promises may be called an empty vessel.

Example: Critics of George W. Bush claimed that he was an empty vessel in terms of domestic policy.

empty handed

                  Similar to the concept of being an empty vessel, a politician who does not bring any new ideas or policies to meetings may be criticized as arriving empty handed. Also, a politician who goes to a meeting but who does not bring back any progress or new policies from a meeting or international summit may be criticized as coming back empty handed.

Example: An American president cannot go to a European economics or climate summit and come back empty handed. He or she must make some sign of progress to bring back to the United States.

blog - containers - hollow tubehollow promise

                  A closed container that is not full is considered to be empty or hollow. A hollow promise is one that cannot be fulfilled.

Example: Candidates who make hollow promises are often defeated in the next election since the public does not trust them anymore.

void

                  Another word for empty is void. However, this term is also applied to policies or procedures that are illegal or done incorrectly, such as a void check. In political terms, a void is created when there is no leadership in a particular area.

Example: In the 2008 presidential election, supporters of Barack Obama thought he filled a void for a president who fought for the rights of the American middle and lower classes.

limits

                  Each container has its limits in terms of size and space. This concept of limits has also been used metaphorically to apply to non-spatial concepts such as time, effectiveness of programs and procedures, physical capabilities of people and machines, etc.

Example: In American politics, presidents have term limits of two four-year terms, senators have unlimited six-year terms, and members of the House of Representatives have unlimited two-year terms. 

blog - containers - worldthe world

                  The concept of the entire earth or world is used metaphorically to mean everything possible in a certain domain.

Example: Supporters of Barack Obama in 2008 thought he was a new hope for the world, bringing peace and prosperity to everyone.

Example: Be wary of politicians who promise you the world during their election campaigns; they often cannot keep such large promises.

Next time: I am wading through 55 pages of the transcript from this week’s Democratic debate – I hope to have some interesting metaphor analysis of that next week…

Pope Francis and Martin Luther King, Jr.

Pope Francis made a historic visit to the United States last week. His tremendous popularity around the world led to huge crowds of admirers wherever he went. Although he is primarily a religious leader, I believe his speeches are worthy of consideration in this blog for several reasons: 1) Politically, he made several powerful speeches concerned with American political, economic and environmental issues; 2) Culturally, he drew crowds unheard of for a religious leader or politician. No one has drawn such huge crowds since Barack Obama first ran for president in 2007 and 2008. 3) Historically, one is tempted to compare the speeches of Pope Francis to those of Martin Luther King, Jr. The pope actually refers to one MLK speech in his own speeches but it is doubtful if the pope has the rhetorical firepower that Martin Luther King demonstrated in the 1960s. 4) Linguistically, Pope Francis speaks several different languages but English is not is first language. I was very curious to see if his speeches contained the usual amount or type of conceptual metaphors that a native English speaker would use.

 

2014 Pastoral Visit of Pope Francis to Korea
2014 Pastoral Visit of Pope Francis to Korea

I have analyzed three of the Pope’s speeches – his remarks at the White House (henceforth referred to as WH), the speech he gave to a joint meeting of Congress (CG) and his talk at the United Nations (UN). As many people must have noticed, Pope Francis often referred to his previous writing, the Laudato Si, an encyclical he wrote and presented in April of this year. (An encyclical is a very lengthy article on a specific topic written by the pope and published by the Vatican. This year’s topic was on climate change.   The name Laudato Si’ is a shortened form of a line from a poem Saint Francis of Assisi, “Laudato Si”, mi’ Signore” – “Praise be to you, my Lord”.) Although it is not a speech, the Laudato Si’ contains many of the original language used in the speeches, so I will refer to it on occasion here as well. It is a thesis-length article (more than 37,000 words!) with more than two hundred separate issues discussed. The pope refers to some of these points by number in his own speeches.

 

Given that English is not the Pope’s first language, I was not surprised that I did not find a great deal of metaphor usage in his speeches. However, he used several interesting categories of metaphors that illustrate the ubiquity of many of our conceptual metaphors. Specifically, he used metaphors of family, homes, buildings and journeys. As usual, all the examples provided here are from the speeches and writings of the pope. Italics are mine. Some examples are repeated if they contain more than one type of metaphor.

Family

One common conceptual metaphor is to describe people who are not blood relations as brothers, sisters, fathers or mothers. Pope Francis used these metaphors extensively in his speeches. This is not too surprising since these metaphors are commonly used in Catholic naming of various roles within the church. Catholic nuns are referred to as Sisters, monks as Brothers, a head nun as Mother Superior, and priests as Fathers. Pope Francis extends these metaphors to other members of the church or different people around the world. He also uses the family members of sons and daughters to describe citizens of certain countries.

Example: “During my visit I will have the honor of addressing Congress, where I hope, as a brother of this country, to offer words of encouragement to those called to guide the nation’s political future in fidelity to its founding principles.” (WH)

blog - family - photoExample: “That freedom [religious liberty] remains one of America’s most precious possessions. And, as my brothers, the United States Bishops, have reminded us, all are called to be vigilant, precisely as good citizens, to preserve and defend that freedom from everything that would threaten or compromise it.” (WH)

Example: “I would like all men and women of good will in this great nation to support the efforts of the international community to protect the vulnerable in our world and to stimulate integral and inclusive models of development, so that our brothers and sisters everywhere may know the blessings of peace and prosperity which God wills for all his children.” (WH)

Example: “I am most grateful for your invitation to address this Joint Session of Congress in “the land of the free and the home of the brave”. I would like to think that the reason for this is that I too am a son of this great continent, from which we have all received so much and toward which we share a common responsibility. Each son or daughter of a given country has a mission, a personal and social responsibility.” (CG)

Example: “The contemporary world, with its open wounds which affect so many of our brothers and sisters, demands that we confront every form of polarization which would divide it into these two camps.” (CG)

Example: “Three sons and a daughter of this land, four individuals and four dreams: Lincoln, liberty; Martin Luther King, liberty in plurality and non-exclusion; Dorothy Day, social justice and the rights of persons; and Thomas Merton, the capacity for dialogue and openness to God.” (CG)

Home and Community

The word normally refers to the physical residence or location of a person or family. In the Laudato Si’, Pope Francis often refers to the earth metaphorically as our common home as if we all live in the same place. He repeats these metaphors quite often in his speeches. In one instance, he extends the metaphor of a common home to that of a community.

Example: “When it comes to the care of our ‘common home,’ we are living at a critical moment of history. We still have time to make the changes needed to bring about ‘a sustainable and integral development, for we know that things can change’ (Laudato Si’, 13).” (WH)

Example: “Our common home has been part of this group of the excluded which cries out to heaven and which today powerfully strikes our homes, our cities and our societies.” (WH)

blog - personification - homeExample: “The common home of all men and women must continue to rise on the foundations of a right understanding of universal fraternity and respect for the sacredness of every human life, of every man and every woman, the poor, the elderly, children, the infirm, the unborn, the unemployed, the abandoned, those considered disposable because they are only considered as part of a statistic. This common home of all men and women must also be built on the understanding of a certain sacredness of created nature.” (UN)

Example: “The United Nations is presently celebrating its seventieth anniversary. The history of this organized community of states is one of important common achievements over a period of unusually fast- paced changes.” (UN)

 

Buildings

Another common metaphor used by Pope Francis was that of building societies and communities as if they are physical structures. Thus we see metaphorical references to buildings, foundations, structures and pillars.

Example: “As the son of an immigrant family, I am happy to be a guest in this country, which was largely built by such families.” (WH)

Example: “Mr. President, together with their fellow citizens, American Catholics are committed to building a society which is truly tolerant and inclusive, to safeguarding the rights of individuals and communities, and to rejecting every form of unjust discrimination.” (WH)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAExample: “Here, together with their representatives, I would like to take this opportunity to dialogue with the many thousands of men and women who strive each day to do an honest day’s work, to bring home their daily bread, to save money and –one step at a time – to build a better life for their families.” (CG)

Example: “The complexities of history and the reality of human weakness notwithstanding, these men and women, for all their many differences and limitations, were able by hard work and self-sacrifice – some at the cost of their lives – to build a better future.” (CG)

Example: “Building a future of freedom requires love of the common good and cooperation in a spirit of subsidiarity and solidarity.” (CG)

Example: “Even in the developed world, the effects of unjust structures and actions are all too apparent.” (CG)

Example: “In this land, the various religious denominations have greatly contributed to building and strengthening society.” (CG)

Example: “How essential the family has been to the building of this country! And how worthy it remains of our support and encouragement!” (CG)

blog - SOTU 15 - pillars ParthenonExample: “For all this, the simplest and best measure and indicator of the implementation of the new Agenda for development will be effective, practical and immediate access, on the part of all, to essential material and spiritual goods: housing, dignified and properly remunerated employment, adequate food and drinking water; religious freedom and, more generally, spiritual freedom and education. These pillars of integral human development have a common foundation, which is the right to life and, more generally, what we could call the right to existence of human nature itself.” (UN)

Example: “The common home of all men and women must continue to rise on the foundations of a right understanding of universal fraternity and respect for the sacredness of every human life, of every man and every woman, the poor, the elderly, children, the infirm, the unborn, the unemployed, the abandoned, those considered disposable because they are only considered as part of a statistic. This common home of all men and women must also be built on the understanding of a certain sacredness of created nature.” (UN)

Example: “The contemporary world, so apparently connected, is experiencing a growing and steady social fragmentation, which places at risk ‘the foundations of social life’ and consequently leads to ‘battles over conflicting interests’ (Laudato Si’, 229).” (UN)

Journeys

Journey metaphors are among the most commonly used tropes in political rhetoric. A speaker will often compare the attempts at making progress on a certain political or social issue as people going on a journey. Thus we can see examples of people opening doors to start a journey, taking steps along the way, or moving forward along a path.   People can also get lost on their journeys or be led astray by making wrong choices.  Other people can be trapped where they are or stuck in a maze and not be able to make the journey they need to go on.

blog - pathExample: “The efforts which were recently made to mend broken relationships and to open new doors to cooperation within our human family represent positive steps along the path of reconciliation, justice and freedom.” (WH)

Example: “I also want to dialogue with all those young people who are working to realize their great and noble aspirations, who are not led astray by facile proposals, and who face difficult situations, often as a result of immaturity on the part of many adults.” (CG)

Example: “We must move forward together, as one, in a renewed spirit of fraternity and solidarity, cooperating generously for the common good.” (CG)

Example: “At the same time I would encourage you to keep in mind all those people around us who are trapped in a cycle of poverty.” (CG)

Example: “In Laudato Si’, I call for a courageous and responsible effort to ‘redirect our steps’ (ibid., 61), and to avert the most serious effects of the environmental deterioration caused by human activity.” (CG)

Example: “When countries which have been at odds resume the path of dialogue – a dialogue which may have been interrupted for the most legitimate of reasons – new opportunities open up for all.” (CG)

blog - journey - mazeExample: “In particular, I would like to call attention to those family members who are the most vulnerable, the young. For many of them, a future filled with countless possibilities beckons, yet so many others seem disoriented and aimless, trapped in a hopeless maze of violence, abuse and despair. Their problems are our problems. We cannot avoid them.” (CG)

blog - journey - footstepsExample: “This is the fifth time that a Pope has visited the United Nations. I follow in the footsteps of my predecessors Paul VI, in 1965, John Paul II, in 1979 and 1995, and my most recent predecessor, now Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, in 2008.” (UN)

Example: “Our world demands of all government leaders a will which is effective, practical and constant, concrete steps and immediate measures for preserving and improving the natural environment and thus putting an end as quickly as possible to the phenomenon of social and economic exclusion, with its baneful consequences: human trafficking, the marketing of human organs and tissues, the sexual exploitation of boys and girls, slave labor, including prostitution, the drug and weapons trade, terrorism and international organized crime.” (UN)

Echoes of Martin Luther King, Jr.

As a final note, Pope Francis refers to the speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. at several points in his own speeches. He directly quotes MLK’s use of the metaphor of the promissory note that he used in the “I Have a Dream” speech. He also comments extensively on MLK’s use of the idea of pursuing a dream to make life better for citizens of the world.

blog - business - promissory noteExample: “Our common home has been part of this group of the excluded which cries out to heaven and which today powerfully strikes our homes, our cities and our societies. To use a telling phrase of the Reverend Martin Luther King, we can say that we have defaulted on a promissory note and now is the time to honor it.” (WH)

Example: “Here too I think of the march which Martin Luther King led from Selma to Montgomery fifty years ago as part of the campaign to fulfill his ‘dream’ of full civil and political rights for African-Americans. That dream continues to inspire us all. I am happy that America continues to be, for many, a land of ‘dreams.’ Dreams which lead to action, to participation, to commitment. Dreams which awaken what is deepest and truest in the life of a people.” (CG)

Example: “Three sons and a daughter of this land, four individuals and four dreams: Lincoln, liberty; Martin Luther King, liberty in plurality and non-exclusion; Dorothy Day, social justice and the rights of persons; and Thomas Merton, the capacity for dialogue and openness to God.” (CG)

Example: “A nation can be considered great when it defends liberty as Lincoln did, when it fosters a culture which enables people to ‘dream’ of full rights for all their brothers and sisters, as Martin Luther King sought to do; when it strives for justice and the cause of the oppressed, as Dorothy Day did by her tireless work, the fruit of a faith which becomes dialogue and sows peace in the contemplative style of Thomas Merton. “(CG)

*******

Although Pope Francis clearly does not have the oratorical style or rhetorical power of Martin Luther King, Jr., his ability to draw huge crowds of people indicates he is reaching millions of people with his messages. His popularity is perhaps partially due to his lack of partisan politics or hidden agendas. His piety and world-wide respect allow him to comment on political and social issues with great gravitas. Time will tell if American politicians and citizens will truly help the dreams of Pope Francis to become reality.

Next time: More metaphors of containers.

Scott Walker Drops Out

The study of politics is always full of surprises. The past two weeks, two Republican presidential candidates have dropped out of the race even though the actual election is more than a year away. Rick Perry was perhaps not expected to win the primary, but Scott Walker was once considered a possible front-runner.   Walker’s decision to drop out came as a surprise to many experts in the media. For me, I was reminded of the ubiquitous nature of container metaphors. Linguists have known for years how we describe abstract concepts as if they are inside, outside or through boxes, pipes, or other containers such as people being insiders or outsiders, falling in love, clothes going out of style or a candidate dropping out of a race. Today I would like to share a few more metaphors of containers, talking about being outside. I will share metaphors of inside at another time.

blog - containers - outside boxout

We can talk about people or concepts metaphorically being out of containers. We may talk about being out of politics, out of money, out of time, etc.

Example: In 2000, George Bush won the election, so he was in the White House and Bill Clinton was out.

outside

                  In politics, we can talk about people being outside of the normal political process. Sometimes this is a disadvantage if the candidate is seen as being inexperienced; other times, it can be an advantage if an opposing candidate seems to be too much of a Washington insider and does not care about the average American citizen.

Example: In 2008, many Americans were tired of politics in Washington, so they looked to Barack Obama, someone outside the current system, to bring new hope to the American people.

blog - containers - outside rainoutsider

                  Someone outside of the normal political system in a country or state is considered an outsider. 

Example: In local politics, it is almost impossible for an outsider to win an election. Most people vote for someone who comes from the local area and understands local problems.

come out

                  When a container is filled with solid or liquid materials, it is a common experience to see these materials coming out of the container when it is used. Metaphorically, this phrase has three meanings: 1) how programs or policies are created by politicians while they are in office; 2) how something occurs, e.g., how the process comes out in the end, and 3) how information is released secretly or accidentally. 

Example: During the beginning of the recession in late 2008, many Americans were surprised that many ideas coming out of the White House involved bailing out the Wall Street corporations who caused the economic collapse in the first place.

Example: In 2004, many people thought John Kerry would defeat George Bush in the presidential election; they were surprised when it came out in the end that President Bush retained the White House. 

Example: At the beginning of the Watergate Scandal in 1972, President Nixon first claimed that he had done nothing wrong, but then it came out in later trials that he was involved in a plot to secretly tape Democrats having a meeting in the Watergate Hotel. 

outcome

In some old English words, the verb and the preposition are reversed as in overwhelm, or underestimate. Similarly the concept of coming out can be written as outcome in the noun form.   In this sense, the outcome is the end result of some action or process.

Example: In a presidential election, many American voters stay up late on election night waiting to hear the final outcome.

A sign in a London tube station indicating the way to the street
A sign in a London tube station indicating the way to the street

a way out

When something or someone is trapped inside a container, they must find a way to get out of the confining space in order to be free. Finding a way out is used metaphorically to find a solution to a problem.

Example: Most of George Bush’s second term as president was bogged down by efforts of politicians from all sides to find a way out of the war in Iraq.

all out

When a container is completely empty, its contents are all removed or all out. In metaphorical terms, something that is done all out is done with complete effort.

Example: Even though Mitt Romney campaigned all out in the 2012 election, he came up short and lost the election to Barack Obama.

outright

When something is done completely and there is one clear outcome, we can say that it is done outright, in the sense of out meaning outside the container, and right meaning correct.

Example: In the year 2000, there was a huge controversy about the vote count between George Bush and Al Gore; however, after the Supreme Court’s decision, George Bush was declared the outright winner.

outlast

As with the term outcome, outlast is also a form with the verb and preposition reversed from the normal order, in the sense of last as to endure. Thus, to outlast something or someone means to endure or continue longer than someone else.

Example: In the 2008 Democratic primary, Barack Obama outlasted Hillary Clinton and won the primary for their party.

An African rock python emerging from an egg
An African rock python emerging from an egg

emerging

In another sense of coming out, we talk about processes emerging as if they are snakes coming out of an egg. New governments, countries or policies may be said to be emerging.

Example: During the Iraq War, the emerging government in Baghdad was seen as a hope for ending the war and turning the country back over to the Iraqi people.

U.S. Army paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division descend to the ground after jumping out of a C-17 Globemaster III aircraft
U.S. Army paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division descend to the ground after jumping out of a C-17 Globemaster III aircraft

drop out

Large pieces of solid material may drop out of a container, such as potato from a large bag or paratroopers dropping out of an airplane.  In common terms, anything can drop out of a process or program if it is unplanned, as in teenagers who drop out of high school.

Example: In 2015, Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker dropped out of the race for president even before the Republican primary.

 

blog - container - squeeze ketchupsqueeze out

If a container holds a paste or semi-solid material, we say that it must be squeezed out as with toothpaste from a tube. In metaphorical terms, we can also squeeze out money, effort, votes, or other abstract concepts in a difficult situation.

Example: In any election, candidates campaign up to the last minute, trying to squeeze out as many votes as they can before the polls close.

 

 

 

Next time: Metaphors of Pope Francis

Ted Cruz Takes a Right Turn

Republican presidential candidate Ted Cruz has been in the news lately. His blunt attacks on the current administration and his own party have endeared him to many conservative voters and allied him with the controversial front runner Donald Trump. A recent Time magazine article nicely summarizes his campaign successes so far and provides a treasure trove of political metaphors. The article is by author Alex Altman entitled Right Turns Only: Ted Cruz’s Radical Plan to Win the White House in the September 7/14 double issue, pages 52 – 55. Online you can read the article here if you are a subscriber.

Altman’s description includes a variety of conceptual metaphors. In addition to the usual sports and military metaphors, I will highlight several interesting examples from agriculture, cooking, religion and vehicles. All quotations are from the article. Some examples are listed several times if they contain more than one metaphor. All metaphors are in italics, not in the original.

 

Agriculture

blog - cruz - Pea_seed_germinatingseed money

Seeds are used to grow vegetables in a garden or farm. Seeds, metaphorically, are the starting points of a project. Likewise, seed money is the cash or capital used to finance an expensive project.   In this example, the authors of the article are explaining how Ted Cruz’s campaign style has attracted big donors.

Example: “The pitch has attracted plenty of seed money–more than $50 million between his campaign and affiliated super PACs, a total that ranks second only to Jeb Bush’s.”

 

take root

Trees have roots that not only hold the tree into the ground but symbolize the beginnings of the tree’s growth. The concept of roots is commonly used metaphorically to mean the origin of something.

Example: “At 13, he enrolled in an after-school program designed to inculcate the merits of free-market economics. By then his obsession with the Constitution had taken root.”

swaths

Specific farming terms or techniques can also be used in politics. A swath is a wide portion of a land recently plowed or harvested. The term swath may also be used to describe a large group of voters.

Example: “Cruz’s plan is to corner the market for Tea Party conservatives and compete for swaths of the evangelical and libertarian vote.”

blog - cruz - Milking-a-cow-pastmilk

Some farm animals such as dairy cows and goats are used to obtain their milk for human consumption. This process is known as milking. Metaphorically, if one takes advantage of a situation for a long period of time, this may also be known as milking. The author of the article, Alex Altman, describes Ted Cruz’s amazing childhood, having been raised in Canada by Cuban refugees who fled the Batista regime in the 1950s but implies that he talks about it too often to gain sympathy from his supporters.

 

Example: “Few politicians milk as much mileage from biography as Cruz.”

 

Cooking

cooked up

Cooking is a way of preparing food to eat. It is normally a long process that takes a large number of ingredients and the skill of the chef. Metaphorically, the concept of cooking has a negative connotation, in that one can create something that is not true by cooking it up.

Example: “In recent weeks alone, he has dismissed global warming as a fiction cooked up by government stooges…”

canned jokes

In the 1800s, people starting preserving food by putting in tightly sealed jars and tin cans. The so-called canned food was great for keeping food from spoiling, but canned food also earned a reputation for not having much taste and always tasting the same no matter how it was cooked. In popular terms, a speech or set of ideas can be described as being canned if they are not original or are not very exciting.

Example: “His stump speech, delivered without notes or teleprompter, is precisely honed, down to the canned jokes and the pauses for emphasis.”

blog - cruz - sprinklessprinkles

Some desserts such as cookies or cupcakes often have colored sugar bits placed on top of the frosting. These small candies are called sprinkles because one must sprinkle them onto the surface from a small jar. Metaphorically, a person can sprinkle a public talk with various types of comments to add flavor or color to the speech.

Example: “He sprinkles his speeches with social cues–ain’ts and God-bless-yous and Chuck Norris jokes–that show the audience he’s one of them.”

blog - cruz - skewerskewer

Small pieces of meat can be cooked on a barbecue grill by putting all the pieces on a long thin metal rod called a skewer. The skewered meat can be cooked along with vegetables to make a wonderful meal. In popular terms, a person can be skewered by someone or a group of people by very strong criticism.

Example: “His taste for skewering his own party often surprises even those familiar with his scorched-earth style.”

 

Sports

race

A horse race involves people betting a lot of money on horses that they think can win. In a political campaign, people put a lot of money behind candidates whom they hope can win an election. Thus an election is often compared to a horse race.

Example: “The party has compressed the 2016 primary calendar into a few months in order to limit the damage the race inflicts on the eventual nominee.”

jockey

When the horses are running in a race, the jockeys (persons who ride the horses) must try to get in the best position possible so that they can win the race. Of course, every jockey wants to be on the inside track so they must fight to get where they want to be. This is called jockeying for position. In politics, we may also say that candidates must jockey for position to gain the best advantage and win the election.

Example: “So while rivals jockeyed for scraps of territory in Iowa and New Hampshire, Cruz barnstormed the nation’s reddest precincts in a bus with Right turns only plastered above the bumper.”

up for grabs

In basketball, the game begins by the referee throwing the ball straight up in the air. This is called the toss up. The player who can reach and control the ball after the toss up will win the ball for his or her team. In common terms, any competition or election that might be one by any player or team may be called a toss up or up for grabs.

Example: “Seven Southern states with about a third of the delegates needed to win the nomination are likely to be up for grabs on March 1, a Super Tuesday bonanza Cruz calls the SEC primary.”

040321-N-5862D-206   Millington, Tenn. (March 21, 2004) Ð Cmdr. Brad Neff takes the checkered flag for a victory lap at the Memphis Motor Speedway in the Sports Car Club of AmericaÕs (SCCA) first national race in the Mid-West division of the 2004 season. Cdr. Neff, a U.S. Navy submarine officer is currently stationed at the Navy Recruiting Command aboard Naval Support Activity Mid-South in Millington, Tenn. The 41-year-old Oakland, Calif. native is in his second year racing competitively in the Touring One (T-1) class in the SCCA amateur racing circuit. U.S. Navy photo by Chief PhotographerÕs Mate Chris Desmond. (RELEASED)
Millington, Tenn. (March 21, 2004) Cmdr. Brad Neff takes the checkered flag for a victory lap at the Memphis Motor Speedway in the Sports Car Club of America’s (SCCA) first national race in the Mid-West division of the 2004 season. U.S. Navy photo by Chief Photographer’s Mate Chris Desmond. (RELEASED)

victory lap

In car racing, the winning car will often take one more lap around the track so that the fans can cheer for the winner. The same is true of track and field runners. This lap is called the victory lap. In metaphorical terms, a person in business or politics who celebrates after a big win may be described as taking a victory lap.

Example: “Big crowds greeted him like a gridiron legend. But this was no victory lap. The Texas Senator has a new Southern strategy. Seven Southern states with about a third of the delegates needed to win the nomination are likely to be up for grabs on March 1, a Super Tuesday bonanza Cruz calls the SEC primary.”

turbocharge

The power of a normal engine can be greatly increased with the addition of a device called a turbocharger. Metaphorically, any significant increase in energy, money or progress may be referred to as turbocharging.

Example: “The first presidential debate had boosted his poll numbers and turbocharged his fundraising.”

muscle

Athletes need strong, muscular bodies to compete at the collegiate or professional level. Having muscle implies that one is strong and ready for competition. In politics, a person or group with muscle means that they are ready for a political battle.

Example: “Cruz boasts that he is the rare true conservative with the fundraising firepower and organizational muscle to slug it out with the GOP’s Establishment favorites through a grinding national campaign.”

Eli Manning of the New York Giants
Eli Manning of the New York Giants

throw a Hail Mary

In football, when a team is losing and has one last chance to win or tie the game, the quarterback may throw a long pass into the end zone hoping one of his receivers can catch it. The success of such a pass is so unlikely, people joke that you need to say a catholic Hail Mary prayer to have any chance of succeeding. Thus, throwing this type of pass is known as throwing a Hail Mary. In business or politics, trying to do something that is very unlikely to succeed is also known as a Hail Mary.

Example: “’It is unlikely to be possible for a candidate to do what some candidates in previous decades have done,’ Cruz explains, ‘which is go camp out in an early state, spend a year there, throw a Hail Mary and get enough momentum to win the nomination.’”

 

Religion

true believers

People who are completely faithful to their religion may be called true believers. In politics, the same phrase may be used to describe those who have complete faith in a political leader or certain political ideologies.

Example: “Cruz is convinced there are enough true believers to push a proven warrior into the White House.”

party faithful

In a specific metaphorical use of the concept of faith, we say that members of a political party are faithful to that party and will always vote for candidates and policies presented by that party.

Example: “When he preaches to the party faithful, Cruz ditches the lectern and roams the stage, carving up his targets in tightly constructed paragraphs.”

Buddhist monks on a pilgrimage in Thailand
Buddhist monks on a pilgrimage in Thailand

pilgrimage

In some religions, people take long journeys to go to the birthplace of their faith or to see a beloved religious leader. This type of journey is called a pilgrimage. In politics, journeys by people to see their favorite politician may also be called a pilgrimage.

Example: “The southeast is a strange place for a political pilgrimage.”

 

Journey/vehicles

blog - cruz - Road_Sign_No_Left_Turnright turns only

Our sense of what is left, right and center is derived from the orientation to our own bodies, e.g., left hand, right leg, etc. Historically, in politics, left indicated liberal and right indicated conservative. This usage dates to the French National Assembly in 1789 when the more conservative politicians sat to the right side of the president’s chair, while the liberal thinkers sat on the left. We still use these terms today. Interestingly, we have extended the meaning of left and right to turning directions while driving a vehicle, making a left turn indicates that one is becoming more liberal while making a right turn means becoming more conservative. Ted Cruz has capitalized on this metaphorical usage and uses a slogan of right turns only for his supporters.

Example: “So while rivals jockeyed for scraps of territory in Iowa and New Hampshire, Cruz barnstormed the nation’s reddest precincts in a bus with Right turns only plastered above the bumper.”

barnstorm

In the early 1800s, theatrical troupes put on plays in barns for local communities. This was known as barnstorming. The term took on a new meaning in the early 1900s when pilots with newly invented airplanes crisscrossed the country putting on air shows for small communities. In politics, candidates who visit all parts of the country giving campaign speeches may also be described as barnstorming.

Example: “So while rivals jockeyed for scraps of territory in Iowa and New Hampshire, Cruz barnstormed the nation’s reddest precincts in a bus with Right turns only plastered above the bumper.”

drive

The word drive has many meanings. In the context of vehicles, to drive means to operate a vehicle. Figuratively, any action to move a process forward may also be known as driving.

Example: “Instead of softening his rhetoric, he believes a pure conservative message can drive millions of disaffected white and evangelical voters back to the polls.”

 

Military

warrior

A military soldier is often called a warrior, i.e., one who goes to war. In politics, a person who fights for his or her principles in campaigns may also be called a warrior.

Example: “Cruz is convinced there are enough true believers to push a proven warrior into the White House.”

World War I soldiers marching in Toronto, May 1918
World War I soldiers marching in Toronto, May 1918

rank and file

Large groups of soldiers can be arranged in horizontal rows called ranks, and vertical columns called files. Commanding officers are not arranged in such ways. Thus, the rank and file soldiers are the hardworking soldiers who are not in high positions. Metaphorically, ordinary people in business and politics may be referred to as the rank and file if they loyally support their business leaders and politicians.

Example: “The reinvention prompts some Republicans to suggest the party-crasher routine is an act Cruz created as he watched the GOP rank and file lurch to the right during the early years of the Obama presidency.”

stand up and fight, lead the fight

In boxing and the military, strong boxers or soldiers must stand up and fight dangerous battles. Metaphorically, politicians also stand up and fight for their principles in campaigns, in Congress or in the presidency. Those in leadership roles may also be described as leading the fight. Ordinary citizens may also be described as standing up and fighting for their rights as well.

Example: “’Voters should ask every candidate, Show me where you’ve stood up and fought,’ Cruz explains, digging into a double cheeseburger with jalapeños at a Whataburger outside Houston.”

Example: “’What I ask activists to do is to pick the 10 or 12 most important fights of the last several years,’ Cruz says as his SUV wheels toward another book signing in Texas. On every big conservative battle, he says, from Obamacare to government spending to religious liberty, I’ve been leading the fight.’”

command an army

Military leaders are often called commanders who control their armies. Metaphorically, a politician may also be described as someone who is commanding the army of his or her supporters.

Example: “Cruz is a constitutional scholar who commands a populist army, a careful tactician who picks long-shot fights.”

battle grounds

The land where battles are fought are called battlegrounds. In politics, states in which voters may vote for either Democrats or Republicans are called battleground states when candidates fight for the votes for their party.

Example: “But if the 2016 battle is waged on those grounds, it may favor the fighter who only turns right.”

blog - war - Cannon_Firefirepower

A gun, rifle, or cannon can be described in terms of its explosive power depending on the amount of gunpowder used in its bullets or shells. This is also called firepower. Metaphorically, the ability to raise money or win elections in politics may be called firepower.

Example: “Cruz boasts that he is the rare true conservative with the fundraising firepower and organizational muscle to slug it out with the GOP’s Establishment favorites through a grinding national campaign.”

target

With guns as well as bows and arrows, people practice shooting their weapons by aiming at a target a long distance away. The literal target has been changed to mean a metaphorical goal in a process or project. In politics, candidates and elected officials try to please their constituents who may vote for them.   These voters may be referred to as the target audience.

Example: “The goal is to determine their target audience and feed each segment a message calibrated to sway them.”

long-shot fights, long-shot bid

To shoot at a target far away is called taking a long shot. The farther away the target, the less likely the person can accurately hit it. In common terms, a long shot is something that has a very low likelihood of happening. In politics, a long shot is a person who is not likely to win an election or an event that is not likely to happen. In the following examples, we see uses of long-shot fights and long-shot bids.

Example: “Cruz is a constitutional scholar who commands a populist army, a careful tactician who picks long-shot fights.”

Example: “But when Cruz launched a long-shot bid for the U.S. Senate in 2012, he campaigned as a self-styled insurgent.”

bog - cruz - scorched earth Kuwait1991
Iraqi soldiers set fire to oil pipelines during the First Gulf War in Kuwait in 1991.

scorched earth

In some military operations, an army will burn all of the land belonging to an enemy so that it is unusable. This strategy is known as a scorched earth policy. Metaphorically, criticism of an adversary that is done in a quick and brutal fashion may be described as a scorched earth policy or style.

Example: “His taste for skewering his own party often surprises even those familiar with his scorched-earth style.”

badge of honor

Military personnel who demonstrate extraordinary bravery in battle are often awarded medals or badges of honor for their heroism. In popular terms, any a person who is known for brave acts may be considered as someone metaphorically wearing a badge of honor.

Example: “From the time he arrived in the Senate in 2013, Cruz grasped that pariah status in Washington can be a powerful weapon, so he wears his colleagues’ contempt as a badge of honor.”

New Zealand soldiers in a trench in France in World War I
New Zealand soldiers in a trench in France in World War I

fighting trench warfare

During World War I, soldiers had to dig deep ditches or trenches to protect themselves from enemy attacks. This type of fighting wars was called fighting in the trenches. Metaphorically, politicians involved in complex negotiations or arguments may be described as fighting in the trenches or fighting trench warfare.

Example: “It’s entirely possible that one person wins Iowa, a different person wins New Hampshire, and a third wins South Carolina,” Cruz says. “Which means then you’re fighting trench warfare nationwide.”

dig in

The action of creating a trench for protection in a battle is sometimes known as digging in. Metaphorically, taking a firm stand on an issue and not budging from one’s position may also be known as digging in.

Example: “But with so many hopefuls like Cruz raising so much early money, the prospects of a costly, drawn-out fight are now very real. And Cruz is digging in for the long haul.”

*******

            As I have mentioned many times in this space, I am always amazed that ordinary conversation and writing are filled with conceptual metaphors. Even a brief article (2300 words) by my count contains about 80 different metaphors.   I have only analyzed a portion of them here. While it is common to compare elections to sports competitions or wars, it is fascinating that we have metaphors based on cooking, farming or journeys as well. It is more evidence to support the theories of Lakoff and Johnson who have argued for years that metaphorically thinking is part of normal cognition. Comments and questions are always welcome!

Labor Day Metaphors

In honor of Labor Day this year, I thought I would share a few metaphors from business, commerce, buying, selling and working. Some of these examples I have shared in previous posts, but they are worth mentioning again here. As I have explained many times in this space, we derive conceptual metaphors from an incredible variety of human experiences. Not surprisingly, since everyone has to have a job to pay his or her bills, we can all relate to metaphors of work. Here a few key examples.

 

product

Products are anything produced by a company in a factory such as cars, brooms, computers, etc. People can also be products of the educational or political systems in which they were trained.

Example: In 2008, critics of Barack Obama complained that he was a product of corrupt Chicago politics.

blog - work - hula hoopnovelty candidate

                  A novelty is a product that is made and sold as something new and unusual that hopefully everyone will want to buy. These are usually toys such as hula-hoops or pet rocks. In real terms, the word novelty usually implies that the product is not very serious or useful. In politics, a novelty candidate is someone new to politics, has new ideas, but is not taken seriously by mainstream media or politicians.

Example:   As the first woman candidate for president in many years, Hillary Clinton tried to avoid the label of the novelty candidate.

manufacture

                  Another word for making something is to manufacture it, as in a product from a factory. In metaphorical terms, someone can manufacture an idea, a problem or a reaction to something.

Example:   Sometimes politicians manufacture fear about some social problem so that the public will support them to spend money on solving the problem. 

trademark

In business, a trademark is a legal licensing of a certain name or picture that no one else can use. In politics, a trademark is something that it associated with a specific person.

Example:   John McCain showed his trademark honesty and straightforward talk in the 2008 presidential election. 

The First Bank of Hope, Arkansas
The First Bank of Hope, Arkansas

sell

                  In business, the goal is to sell as many products as possible so that the company can make the most money. In politics, people can also sell ideas, policies or programs.

Example:   In 2009, Barack Obama had to sell the idea of using taxpayer money to rescue the banks from financial collapse. 

sell out

In business, to sell out of something means to sell the entire amount of products that the company had. This is a good thing for the company since they will make more money. However, there is another meaning of selling out that means giving up all of your ideas or values for another cause, usually money. In entertainment or politics, selling out is a bad thing to do, and the person will lose a great deal of respect.

Example:   If the governor of a state promises to lower taxes for small businesses then raises them instead, he will be accused of selling out.

tough sell

A product that is difficult to sell is called a tough sell. An expensive house or car, for example, would be tough sell for most people. In politics, a tough sell is an idea or program that not many people will like but a politician will try to sell it anyway.

Example:   During the Great Depression in the 1930s it was a tough sell for President Roosevelt to convince Congress to borrow money to create more jobs.

peddling

Peddling is another word for selling something, usually meaning that someone is going door-to-door or traveling to see the products. In politics, people can peddle ideas, programs, policies, or influence to do something for someone else.

Example:   Washington D.C. lobbyists who try to get members of Congress to spend money for their companies are often called influence peddlers.

Example:   In is first term, George W. Bush was peddling the idea of privatizing social security but the members of Congress were not buying. His ideas were not accepted.

blog - work - Snake-oilsnake oil salesmen

In the 1800s, before there were many doctors in small towns or federal regulations on medicine, anyone could sell anything and call it medicine. In China, people use to sell a type of snake oil as a pain reliever, although some people claim it did not help. Later, people called any type of fake medicine snake oil because they had no medicinal value. In popular terms, a snake oil salesman is someone who is trying to sell something that will not work or has no value.

Example:   People will not vote for a political candidate with wild new ideas if they think he is just a snake oil salesman.

with bells on

In the eastern United States in the 1800s, some peddlers traveled by horseback to sell their products. In some cases, they put bells on their horses so that the local people would know that they were coming. In modern terms, to do something with bells on means to do it with enthusiasm and complete support.

Example:   In the 2008 presidential election, people came out to vote for Barack Obama with bells on. He won with 53% of the vote while John McCain earned 46% of the vote.

The famous fishmongers at Seattle's Pike Place Market
The famous fishmongers at Seattle’s Pike Place Market

warmonger

Monger is an old word for a peddler or salesman. For example, a fishmonger is a fish salesman. The word monger used as a verb means to sell something. In politics, someone who supports wars or tries to sell the idea of going to war with another country is a warmonger.

Example:   During World War II, Adolf Hitler was the ultimate warmonger since he tried to take over the world with wars of aggression.

fearmonger

                  A person who tries to scare the American public without evidence of real danger is sometimes called a fearmonger.

Example:   After the 9/11 attacks, everyone became afraid of terrorists. There was no need for fearmongering politicians. It was a real attack. 

cost /cost votes

We say that everything costs money to buy. In metaphorical terms, things can have more than a monetary cost, e.g., we can say that “the car accident cost him his life.” In political terms, an action by a politician or political party can have a cost in terms of votes in an election.

Example:   Some say that John McCain’s choice of Sarah Palin as vice president nominee was the best idea he ever had; others say that it cost him the election.

afford

To be able to afford something means that one has enough money to buy something. As with the word cost, the word afford can have other meanings besides money. Usually used in a negative sense, the phrase cannot afford something means that the person or group will be worse off with a negative result if some action is not taken.

Example:   Teachers say that we cannot afford to cut funding for education even if it costs a lot of money.

Example:   A president cannot afford to look weak when dealing with terrorists. He or she must be firm and use military action if necessary.

blog - business - punch the clockpunching the clock

In many factories, workers must mark the time that they arrive for work by sticking a card into a machine that punches or stamps the time directly on the card. This process is usually called punching the clock. In metaphorical terms, punching the clock means one is ready to begin or end something.

Example:   Critics of the War in Iraq claimed that the Bush administration already had the clock punched for invading Iraq when the terrorists attacked New York in 2001.

stamp

During government or business transactions, the final decision is often printed on the documents with a rubber stamp filled with ink. The stamp may be used to officially record the date, or status of a transaction. In popular terms, to stamp something means to label it with the views of a particular person, group or political party.

Example:   Ronald Reagan put his stamp on economic policies by cutting taxes on businesses.

rubber stamp

In popular terms, to rubber stamp something means to officially approve something without thinking of or fighting for alternatives.

Example:   A good president does not rubber stamp every spending bill that comes in the oval office. He or she must consider the results of each bill carefully and consider every alternative. 

by all accounts

Every business must keep track of the money they spend and the money they earn. These records of money transaction are called accounts. One can tell how a business is doing by looking at all of their accounts. We also use the phrase by all accounts to indicate that the situation has been well researched.

Example:   By all accounts, Herbert Hoover was a very nice man, but he was not a good president.

signature move

                  After all transactions are complete in business or government, the people involved must sign their names on the document to make it official. Each person’s signature is unique and very important to their identity. In politics, business and entertainment, famous people are said to have signature moves, i.e., something that they often do that is unique to them.

Example:   During his presidency, Ronald Reagan’s signature move was to cut taxes on corporations so that they could get more profits and hire more workers.

blog - business - revolving doorrevolving door

Many large business and government office buildings in big cities have revolving doors at the front entrance. A revolving door is never completely open or closed but constantly alternates between the two so that people can go in and out at the same time. In politics, a revolving door policy occurs when staff members are hired from a certain pool of people, especially when leaders of companies are hired to work for the government, or when former government officials work as lobbyists for the departments they used to regulate.

Example:   During his tenure as president, George W. Bush was criticized for having a revolving door in his administration especially when industry leaders were hired as government regulators.

water cooler topic

Most offices have a water cooler from which the employees can get a drink of cold water. Normally, the water cooler is a popular place for people to meet and have conversations about what is going on in their office or in the world. A water cooler topic is something exciting that happened recently and everyone is talking about.

Example:   In 2015, when Hillary Clinton had a second chance of becoming the first female president, her candidacy was the water cooler topic for many months.

*******

By the way, without getting too political myself, allow me to add the following comment: if you have part or all of this Labor Day weekend off from work, you can probably thank a union. Despite the rantings and ravings of some presidential candidates against unions, historically unions have made our workplaces much more safe, secure, and well paid. I am a proud member of the teachers’ union at our college. Here is a list I have seen recently to remind us of our debt of gratitude to our union brothers and sisters across the United States.

36 Reasons Why You Should Thank a Union

  1. Weekends
  2. All Breaks at Work, including your Lunch Breaks
  3. Paid Vacation
  4. FMLA (Family Medical Leave Act)
  5. Sick Leave
  6. Social Security
  7. Minimum Wage
  8. Civil Rights Act/Title VII (Prohibits Employer Discrimination)
  9. 8-Hour Work Day
  10. Overtime Pay
  11. Child Labor Laws
  12. Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA)
  13. 40 Hour Work Week
  14. Worker’s Compensation (Worker’s Comp)
  15. Unemployment Insurance
  16. Pensions
  17. Workplace Safety Standards and Regulations
  18. Employer Health Care Insurance
  19. Collective Bargaining Rights for Employees
  20. Wrongful Termination Laws
  21. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
  22. Whistleblower Protection Laws
  23. Employee Polygraph Protect Act (Prohibits Employer from using a lie detector test on an employee)
  24. Veteran’s Employment and Training Services (VETS)
  25. Compensation increases and Evaluations (Raises)
  26. Sexual Harassment Laws
  27. Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)
  28. Holiday Pay
  29. Employer Dental, Life, and Vision Insurance
  30. Privacy Rights
  31. Pregnancy and Parental Leave
  32. Military Leave
  33. The Right to Strike
  34. Public Education for Children
  35. Equal Pay Acts of 1963 & 2011 (Requires employers pay men and women equally for the same amount of work)
  36. Laws Ending Sweatshops in the United States

Source: https://www.dailykos.com/story/2012/05/16/1092027/-Thanks-a-Union-36-Ways-Unions-Have-Improved-Your-Life?detail=emailclassic

Have a great weekend!

Donald Trump: Streetball Rhetoric

Dear readers,

My apologies for the long delay since my last post. I have been swamped with work and family obligations the past few weeks. One of the work projects I have been involved in was being on the selection committee to hire not one, but two, deans at my college. I spent many, many hours in the evenings and weekends reading the files of the job candidates – the time I normally spend working on this blog. I mention this only because I was quite amused to observe that the metaphors we use to describe a hiring process are the same that we use to describe an election process.

blog - nature - Corn_field
A field of candidates?

We used metaphors of nature to talk about the group of candidates who applied for the positions: we had a large field of candidates that we narrowed down to a small pool of hopeful administrators. We also used personification to talk about the qualities of the candidates: we talked invited many strong candidates to the interview process, while we had to eliminate several other weak candidates.

 

blog - personification - strength 2
A strong candidate?

Then we used boxing metaphors to describe how we arranged the interviews: we had many candidates in the first round of interviews, and then only a few candidates were invited to the second round. Finally, we used metaphors of spatial prepositions to talk about the expected results of the hiring process (still not finalized as I write this): we were excited about the outcome of the hiring process, but it was up to the college president to make the final decision. And now we are getting down to the wire, because the new deans are supposed to be in place at the beginning of our fall quarter only a few weeks away… I am always amazed how commonly we use metaphors to describe everyday actions.

Anyway, back to the blog…

Readers of this blog will know that I have been analyzing the metaphors used in recent announcements of candidates in the 2016 presidential election. Some candidates have used many colorful metaphors such as Rand Paul and Hilary Clinton. Most other candidates have used fairly direct rhetorical styles with few metaphors.

Donald Trump has earned a great deal of notoriety in the past few weeks by being blunt and critical of President Obama, other presidential candidates, other countries and certain ethnic groups. Most liberals and even other Republican candidates have condemned his comments while some conservatives have applauded his candid remarks. In fact, he has surged to the top of the Republican polls. Pundits on TV news shows have claimed that Donald Trump appeals to conservative voters who are frustrated at government gridlock, trade imbalances and foreign policy actions by President Obama.

It has been a mystery to me how a candidate who has alienated so many Americans can be leading in the polls. He dominated the recent Republican debate, and has just appeared on the cover of the most recent Time magazine. I wondered if there was anything in the rhetoric of Donald Trump’s speeches that would attract conservative voters. I was surprised to find a rhetorical style with unusual metaphor usages that would definitely attract some voters.

blog - trump - bball hoop outdoorsI found that Trump speaks like someone trash talking other players in a streetball game. He is very critical of other players, uses a lot of hyperbole and compares political situations to various sports. The term streetball normally refers to basketball games played by local people in an urban neighborhood. However, when I was growing up in a far south suburb of Chicago, we did not have any city parks nearby. We had to play all kinds of sports in the street – baseball in the hot and humid days of summer, football in the cool, crisp days of fall, even hockey in the winter if the streets were icy enough. Lacking a hoop, we never played basketball in the street but we called both our baseball and football games streetball. We had our share of trash talking back in the day, mostly teasing our siblings and friends about their lack of abilities in whatever sport we happened to be playing. Calling someone stupid or lazy was not acceptable behavior on our block. In urban streetball games and professional basketball games, however, the teasing and name calling can amount to downright rude or vicious attacks on other players.

Even in common parlance talking about sports, we use metaphors of violent physical attacks to describe victories and losses. We say that one team beat or killed another team. Donald Trump uses similar expressions to talk about political rivals. He often uses hyperbole or exaggeration as he does his trash talking. Here are a few examples from his speech announcing his candidacy for president back in June. The metaphors in question are in italics.

Hyperbole/Trash Talking

Example: “Our country is in serious trouble. We don’t have victories anymore. We used to have victories, but we don’t have them. When was the last time anybody saw us beating, let’s say, China in a trade deal? They kill us. I beat China all the time. All the time.”

Example: “When did we beat Japan at anything? They send their cars over by the millions, and what do we do? When was the last time you saw a Chevrolet in Tokyo? It doesn’t exist, folks. They beat us all the time.”

Ohio State University beat the University of Michigan 34 to 0 in 1934.
Ohio State University beat the University of Michigan 34 to 0 in 1934.

Example: “When do we beat Mexico at the border? They’re laughing at us, at our stupidity. And now they are beating us economically. They are not our friend, believe me. But they’re killing us economically.”

Example: “I like them. And I hear their speeches. And they don’t talk jobs and they don’t talk China. When was the last time you heard China is killing us? They’re devaluing their currency to a level that you wouldn’t believe. It makes it impossible for our companies to compete, impossible. They’re killing us.”

Example: “Free trade can be wonderful if you have smart people, but we have people that are stupid. We have people that aren’t smart. And we have people that are controlled by special interests. And it’s just not going to work.”

Example: “Hey, I’m not saying they’re stupid. I like China. I sell apartments for — I just sold an apartment for $15 million to somebody from China. Am I supposed to dislike them? I own a big chunk of the Bank of America Building at 1290 Avenue of the Americas, that I got from China in a war. Very valuable.”

Example: TRUMP: “Sadly, the American dream is dead.”

AUDIENCE MEMBER: “Bring it back.”

Taking

Another aspect of streetball is taking the ball away, common in either basketball of football, as in a steal or a fumble.  In poor areas of town, such as where I grew up, often only one person on the block could afford a nice basketball or football, so we had to make sure that person was playing in the game or else we could not play at all. In rare cases, the person owning the ball, having lost a game or felt cheated, could say, “I’m going home and taking my ball with me!” thus ending the game. Not surprisingly, taking the ball away has many emotional feelings attached to the action. Donald Trump talks about countries taking away our jobs, our money or our military equipment. Ironically, in each case, as far as I know, our government or our corporations have given away those resources instead of someone else actually taking them. Nonetheless, Trump routinely blames other people for these losses. In one example, he even uses a street fighting phrase of saying that no one will push us around. He also talks about taking or bringing the jobs back as if he is taking a basketball back during a game.

One player tries to take the ball from another in a women's basketball game in Australia.
One player tries to take the ball from another in a women’s basketball game in Australia.

Example: “Iran is going to take over the Middle East, Iran and somebody else will get the oil, and it turned out that Iran is now taking over Iraq. Think of it. Iran is taking over Iraq, and they’re taking it over big league.”

Example: “Last week, I read 2,300 Humvees — these are big vehicles — were left behind for the enemy. 2,000? You would say maybe two, maybe four? 2,300 sophisticated vehicles, they ran, and the enemy took them.”

 

 

Example: “That’s right. A lot of people up there can’t get jobs. They can’t get jobs, because there are no jobs, because China has our jobs and Mexico has our jobs. They all have jobs.”

Example: “We need a leader that can bring back our jobs, can bring back our manufacturing, can bring back our military, can take care of our vets. Our vets have been abandoned.”

Example: “We need — we need somebody — we need somebody that literally will take this country and make it great again. We can do that.”

Example: “I’ll bring back our jobs from China, from Mexico, from Japan, from so many places. I’ll bring back our jobs, and I’ll bring back our money.”

Example: “And guess what? No problem. They’re going to build in Mexico. They’re going to take away thousands of jobs. It’s very bad for us.”

Example: “I will find — within our military, I will find the General Patton or I will find General MacArthur, I will find the right guy. I will find the guy that’s going to take that military and make it really work. Nobody, nobody will be pushing us around.”

Sports metaphors

Finally, Donald Trump uses more obvious sports metaphors. He talks about winners and losers, and alludes to people who lose card games or gambling who end up with nothing. He also uses the metaphor of being a football cheerleader to describe someone who is a champion of important causes. Most often, he uses the baseball metaphor of being in the big leagues, meaning professional baseball teams instead of minor league teams. He uses this metaphor to imply that something is happening on a large scale, or that he is a professional while other politicians are in the minor leagues. At the same time, he continues to use hyperbole such as describing results as a disaster, something being destructive, or the entire country going down the drain.

blog - trump - Sign_wrigley_fieldExample: “Iran is going to take over the Middle East, Iran and somebody else will get the oil, and it turned out that Iran is now taking over Iraq. Think of it. Iran is taking over Iraq, and they’re taking it over big league.”

Example: “And we have nothing. We can’t even go there. We have nothing. And every time we give Iraq equipment, the first time a bullet goes off in the air, they leave it.”

Example: “But Obamacare kicks in in 2016. Really big league. It is going to be amazingly destructive. Doctors are quitting. I have a friend who’s a doctor, and he said to me the other day, ‘Donald, I never saw anything like it. I have more accountants than I have nurses. It’s a disaster. My patients are beside themselves. They had a plan that was good. They have no plan now.’”

A cheerleader for the Green Bay Packers
A cheerleader for the Green Bay Packers

Example: “And we also need a cheerleader. You know, when President Obama was elected, I said, “Well, the one thing, I think he’ll do well. I think he’ll be a great cheerleader for the country. I think he’d be a great spirit.” He was vibrant. He was young. I really thought that he would be a great cheerleader. He’s not a leader. That’s true. You’re right about that. But he wasn’t a cheerleader. He’s actually a negative force. He’s been a negative force. He wasn’t a cheerleader; he was the opposite.”

Example: “We have all the cards, but we don’t know how to use them. We don’t even know that we have the cards, because our leaders don’t understand the game. We could turn off that spigot by charging them tax until they behave properly.”

blog - trump - Slot_machineExample: “But he used to say, ‘Donald, don’t go into Manhattan. That’s the big leagues. We don’t know anything about that. Don’t do it.’”

Example: “We have losers. We have losers. We have people that don’t have it. We have people that are morally corrupt. We have people that are selling this country down the drain.

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Clearly Donald Trump has tapped into the anger of many Americans towards their government and what they perceive as the lack of effective policies. More specifically it seems that Trump is appealing to middle-class and lower socioeconomic groups of Americans who feel the government has not been fair to them. Growing up in a lower middle class neighborhood myself, I can attest to the common sentiment in those areas that somehow the game of life is rigged against them, and that the rich people in the United States have gotten rich on the backs of the poor, which, historically, is actually true. It is quite ironic, then, that a billionaire such as Donald Trump is seen as the savior to the working class citizens of the United States.

To continue my streetball metaphor further, we can liken American society to a streetball game. The players like the game to go on peacefully just as it is, with everyone playing by the rules. However, in Trump’s ideology, Mexican immigrants have been breaking up their games for years, and China is constantly taking away the ball (well, the ball was probably made in China anyway…). Donald Trump acts as if he can keep the streetball game going without interference from anyone else. He is going to beat or kill anyone who tries to push them around, because he can play in the big leagues. Even though he is great at trash talking, we shall see if he can walk the walk, not just talk the talk.

Next time: More metaphors in the news